Unknown artist (Lithographer) Joseph Josenhans (Author) Joseph Scholz (Publisher)

Missionary Meeting

Missionary Meeting by Unknown artist, Joseph Josenhans, Joseph Scholz

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This is one of four prints from the publication Illustrations of Missionary Scenes: An Offering for Youth. Within its two volumes are 40 prints with accompanying letterpress descriptions relating to missionary work in Aotearoa New Zealand, West Africa, India, America and China; of these, nine depict scenes from New Zealand. According to Len Bell, it was ‘the most elaborate and ambitious illustrated book about missionary activity in New Zealand at the time of its publication.’ (Bell, p 2) While images of missionary activities in New Zealand had been published prior to the book’s publication in 1856, they had usually been issued individually, or in the few instances they had been included in books their role was as subsidiary support material. In Illustrations of Missionary Scenes, the images are of equal, if not primary importance, perhaps to appeal to the ‘youth’ audience to whom the book was aimed. The plates of this book also differ from those that preceded them as they were not published by a missionary group or Church that had a direct interest in New Zealand. Instead it was the work of an independent publisher, Joseph Scholz; although the author Joseph Josenhans was associated with the Basle Mission and the French edition notes that the book was available for sale there (en vente dans l'Institut des missions évangéliques à Bâle).

While the lithographers of the plates are unknown, it is clear that none of the artists had first hand knowledge of the countries that were depicting. Rather they relied on previously published examples or textual accounts to invent the images. Christian Scholz, who ran the publishing firm of Joseph Scholz, explained his commissioning process in 1852, recording that on ‘finding pictures suited for a picture book [he] gives them to a writer to invent and write texts, and vice versa: how he, acquiring an interesting text gives it to an artist to make illustrations…he paid thousands of gulden as fees to artists for original illustrations, and to authors for texts.’ (Göte Klingberg, 2008, p103, paraphrasing Christian Scholz, 1852) The precedents for the four works proposed are not known, but other New Zealand examples in the publication are based on prints by artists ranging from Sydney Parkinson to George French Angas. Compositionally, Western art models have also been drawn on extensively.

The third or even fourth remove of the lithographer from the subject is manifested in the numerous factual errors of the print, along with their crude, lolly-bright colouring, which is very much of the period in Europe, yet in no way truthfully captures the subject.

Despite these inaccuracies, they are nonetheless significant early images within our art history, demonstrating the dissemination and distortion of images of Māori in Europe, alongside a Eurocentric portrayal of their interaction with missionaries. As Len Bell points out ‘the lithographs operate as moral narratives, the choice and thrust of which were carefully calculated. The fundamental missionary ideas about the unconverted and the converted are visualised in these few images – bluntly and unambiguously’. (Bell, 1979, p 4)

Plate 14. Missionary Meeting

This print demonstrates the missionary successes in New Zealand and the ‘efforts of the natives to spread the gospel’. Represented is a missionary meeting at Kaitaia attended by 500 ‘New Zealanders’ and presided over by William Puckey and Joseph Matthews. According to the accompanying text, such meetings could number 2000, and last until the evening, as ‘The large number of chiefs who wish to address the meeting renders it impossible to shorten proceedings.’ At this particular meeting ‘many chiefs spoke in order, expressing their gratitude to Almighty God for the blessings they had themselves received, and their anxiety that others should partake of similar benefits.’

Puckey and Matthews are depicted at the close of the meeting taking the collection. ‘Old Veili’, a chief of nearly 90 of the Mount Carmel tribe makes his offering accompanied by a child. Next in line stand ‘Noble Panakareao and his wife, the chief of the Rarawa’. In the distance the mission station at Kaitaia is shown.

The attire of the Māori is somewhat fanciful, an impression only accentuated by the pinks and oranges of the handcolouring, which brings to mind the early dictionaries of people and costumes published from the 18th century. The text does however note the origin of Panakareao’s wife’s impressive headdress, a plume of ostrich feathers gifted to her by the Governor’s wife.

Title
Missionary Meeting
Artist/creator
Production date
1856
Medium
handcoloured lithograph
Dimensions
211 x 336 mm
Inscription
XIV [LC]
Credit line
Auckland Art Gallery Toi o Tāmaki, purchased 2010
Accession no
2010/5/3
Copyright
Copyright Expired
Department
New Zealand Art
Display status
Not on display

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